Archivo de la categoría: English

67. Rousseau the State Of Nature

Author: Sr.Coperfield


As we mention in the earlier post about the human nature, one way of having an idea of the “original” man is to think him in the state of nature.

Rousseau has a lot to say about this. Also, he do not want to make the same mistake as others who “in speaking of savages they described citizen.” (Second Discourse, p. 14).

He refered to philosophers like Hobbes and Locke, who gave man in the state of nature characteristics such as sociability, reason, rights, and wishes, which, according to Rousseau, are qualities only acquired in civil society.

Rousseau wants to go back as much as possible in order to have a true idea of what is the savage like, and therefore, what is human nature like.

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66. Rousseau and the Human Nature

Author: Sr.Coperfield


“(…) and abstraction is an unnatural and very painful operation.”

 (Rousseau, Second Discourse, p. 38)


Rousseau, in the context of the enlightenment, is considered special.

His thoughts were not the same as other intellectuals from his time.

Of course Voltaire and Montesquieu had also different ideas but, they shared, along with most of the people of their time, the general Enlightenment conception: reason would help humanity to achieve progress.

Rousseau also conceived human progress as a result of the use of reason, but, at the same time, as a regression, despite of how contradictory this may sound.

To have a better understanding of this idea, I´m going to describe the Rousseaunian concept of human nature; of the “original constitution” and, in a second post , of the man in the state of nature.

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58. The Concept of Private Property According To John Locke

      Author: Sr.Coperfield


      Since childhood we are told by our parents and learn by ourselves that we have some kind of natural right that enables us to own objects.

       The pencil that I bring to school is mine, no one else could use it. If my classmate wants to make use of my pencil he needs to ask for my permission. Then, depending on my will, I will agree to let him use the pencil or I might reject his petition.  I own the pencil. It belongs to me. I decide what to do with it. I have total power over it.

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35. Ten Things You Did Not Know About “Paceñas”

Autor: Edgar Salazar (Colombia)


La Paz, one of the biggest city from Bolivia, is amazing, mysterious and beautiful; there you can find all kind of indigenous cultures and traditions, enormous technologically advanced buildings and, of course, beautiful women (The “Paceñas”).

However, there is a huge misconception about “Paceñas” outside Bolivia; many people believe “Paceñas” are shy and do not like to party; others say that those girls only deal with household chores. Well, nothing could be further from the truth; here you will find out ten facts you didn’t know about “Paceñas”.

1. Paceñas love partying

I know all Latinas are crazy about partying, but Paceñas do it on a total different level; when you go out with a Paceña, she is the one who get wasted and you just resign yourself to take care of such a drunk angel.

This is totally different in the other Latin American countries, where the man rules and the woman is his personal baby-sister. In fact, when you go to a disco in Bolivia, the majority of people there are women looking for hooking up. Amazing eh??

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2. Paceñas are astonishingly beautiful

I must say, I was one of the many who thought Paceñas, and in general Bolivians, were not that beautiful as other Latinas like Puerto Ricans or Colombians. However, Paceñas have Indigenous, European blood, a Latin heritage, which makes them a perfect mix in one Package.

A true Paceña can easily hypnotize the worst womanizer and force him to write songs about his love; if you don’t believe me, ask to Ibrahim Ferrer, a Cuban singer who fell in love with a Paceña and wrote a salsa about their wedding.

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3. Paceñas are ridiculously Hard-working

This comes from their Indigenous heritage; Andean towns have three commandments; one of them is “Do not be Lazy”. If you ever go to La Paz City, you will find that most of the street businesses are directly attended by “Cholitas”, who are indigenous women still using a typical colonial outfit (long skirt and underskirt, hat and long-thick scarf). The most amazing thing about a Cholita is that, while working, she takes care of her four sons (or “wawas” as they call it); Cholita’s man, meanwhile, barely works or simply does nothing.  

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30. The Ancient Freedom

     Author: The Man With No Name


      Often we hear words like love, freedom, rights, happiness, equality, justice and so on. The interesting thing about this lies in the fact that most of us probably would have some kind of difficulty in the attempt to defining those concepts.

     We suppose that we know the meaning of freedom, but when it´s time to explain it to the professor we can´t articulate an “official” definition. That´s because freedom is abstract. A concept created by the human mind that our senses cannot perceive in the reality. We cannot smell, hear or see freedom.

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      Also some of us suppose, that freedom meant the same for the people who lived (or will live), years, decades, centuries or millenniums, before (or after) us. Well, that is not true. Normally the meaning of words like freedom, justice or equality is dynamic.

     The historical context in which humans live is going to affect the way they identify and recognize reality. For a determined population in a determined time freedom meant “X” while for other population in another time freedom meant “Z”.

      Based in that assumption, I’m going to describe and assess the concept of freedom as it was understood by the ancients. Then, I´ll give my point of view about this ancient liberty.

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